The foundational value and belief of community development is that people can improve their community by working together, building consensus on priorities and actions, building on community assets, and developing individual and community capacity. In summary, community development is dependent on the combined capacities of the community’s individuals, public service, and governance. Community development happens from within. Partners such as governments, non-government organizations, and private companies can support the capacity of community individuals, leaders, and organizations.
By supporting capacity, communities can advance their own defined sense of success, based on their assets, including Indigenous knowledge and culture. For partners, strengthened knowledge and competencies for effectively partnering with communities (including cultural competence) is a necessary element for success. IRG’s Indigenous Cultural Competence Course was designed with community development principles at the centre, in order to support and maintain effective relationships with Indigenous communities.
Tools by and for Indigenous Communities
Community development skills are best learned through experience. The Aboriginal Leadership Initiative known locally as Ahp-Cii-Uk, was developed in partnership by the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council, the Governments of Canada and British Columbia, and private corporations. The initiative supports First Nations and partners to build trust, relationships, and capacity. The handbook supports communities in using consensus-based decision making, building capacity, and forming partnerships to “Go the Right Way” for their community. The approach respects and embraces local culture. Applying lessons learned from the Ahp-cii-uk Initiative, it provides advice on community engagement, as well as project planning, design, implementation, governance, budget, and evaluation.
Community health may mean something different for each community. Good health governance is one of the most important factors for a healthy community. This document, prepared by Kishk Anaquot Health Research, provides advice on how to strengthen, improve, or create health governance (i.e., regional boards or local health committees). It was prepared in the spirit of promoting greater First Nations’ control and freedom to influence health outcomes. Topics include community involvement, developing health committees or boards, creating health governance structures, and relationship building between First Nations as well as with other partners. The report includes a discussion of best practices for health governance organizations.
Community-led and defined planning processes drive community development. First Nations in British Columbia and Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) have been collaborating on the Comprehensive Community Planning (CCP) process since 2004. CCP is an ongoing process that enables a community to plan its development in a way that meets its needs and aspirations in all aspects of community life. It can include but is not limited to areas such as governance, land & resources, health, infrastructure development, culture, social, education, and economy. The CCP Handbook: Comprehensive Community Planning for First Nations in British Columbia breaks down comprehensive community planning into manageable stages for communities ready to undertake the planning process. Those stages are:
Monitoring and Evaluation
You will find step-by-step descriptions of the entire process and read about lessons learned by BC First Nations who have tested various approaches to community planning. The Handbook includes practical tools to encourage community involvement and develop the plan based on community vision and goals. The final section includes funding, educational and planning resources to support the development and implementation of your community’s plan.
To view some additional best practices on CCP, see this report from New Relationship Trust: Gaining Momentum: Sharing 96 Best Practices of First Nations Comprehensive Community Planning, 2017
How communities define and measure success over time is an important part of community development. It helps communities understand where they are and where they want to go. This guide, developed for the First Nations of British Columbia, provides an approach to determining what wellness means in your community and provides steps and tools for the development of indicators of wellness, indicators that will show progress towards your community’s vision and overall health. It presents community wellness as a balance between physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health.
Planning and reporting are important community development skills to develop and describe your community’s aspirations and progress. This Guide to Planning and Reporting Standards takes a community-driven and nation-based approach to planning and reporting standards. It captures some of the key learnings of First Nations communities that are leading the way in planning and reporting in British Columbia. It also aims to bring forward emerging standards associated with planning and reporting in First Nations communities.
When communities share information, they can become more effective and efficient by learning from each other. The First Nations in BC Knowledge Network is an accessible platform that fosters the sharing of knowledge and facilitates networking amongst First Nations individuals, communities and organizations. It is a hub for First Nations to share ideas, tools, and best practices on many aspects of governance and community development. There are countless resources in the areas of community services, health, economic development, legal, education, governance, operations, traditional knowledge, and land and resources. Many communities have shared their comprehensive community plans and other community resources. Note: a free registration is required.
Learning from other communities is a great way to explore what could work for your community. The New Relationship Trust (NRT) is an independent non-profit organization dedicated to strengthening First Nations in BC through capacity building. NRT has worked with First Nations in British Columbia to gather and summarize proven and best practices. The site includes best practices on comprehensive community planning, consultation and accommodation, environmental assessment reports, governance reports, and land use planning reports.
Domestic and International Community Development Tools
This Handbook, developed for Human Resources Development Canada, is an introductory guide to community development and capacity building. It is designed primarily for those who have an interest in community development and are looking to learn more. For those who already have a knowledge of community development, the Handbook offers a guide to the process of exploring or initiating community development. The guide includes definitions of basic terms, explanations of community development as a process, and the most common challenges (and solutions) attached to community development.
This report, developed by First Peoples Worldwide, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the World Bank, uses asset-based frameworks to assess economic development projects in Indigenous communities based on the communities’ views of the interventions. The Asset Building Framework and Elements of Development Framework can be used to design and measure the impact of community development projects.
Community health can be defined in many different ways. This tool, developed by the Alberta and Northwest Territories Region of the Public Health Agency of Canada, can help plan and build community capacity around health. The tool can be used facilitate discussions regarding your community’s current situation and future dreams. There are nine feature areas with corresponding sets of questions to describe community capacity in the areas of participation, leadership, community structures, external supports, funding bodies, asking why, obtaining resources, skills, knowledge, and learning, linking with others, and sense of community.
The tool was supported by a literature review and tested by qualitative and quantitative research.
It can be difficult to determine what success looks like, particularly in the case of advocacy and policy outcomes. This guide, developed by Organizational Research Services, presents a framework for evaluating advocacy and policy efforts. The framework allows practitioners to name outcome areas that describe the intended change of an organization related to advocacy and policy. The guide provides advice on a constructing a theory of change outcome map, selecting approaches to measure outcomes, and evaluating results.
This collection of tools, developed by Organizational Research Services, supports efforts to develop and implement the evaluation of advocacy and policy work. It provides 27 sample tools and methodologies for collecting information about policy and advocacy efforts. These methodologies can be used to evaluate outcome areas that are sometimes difficult to measure, including changes in behavior, changes in impact, improved policies, and strengthened organizational capacity, alliances, and base of support.
The field of international capacity development may offer insights to help your community assess and plan capacity development. This guide provides an internationally-used approach to capacity development and capacity assessment, including a step-by-step guide to conducting a capacity assessment using UNDP’s capacity assessment framework. Core issues for assessment are institutional arrangements, leadership, knowledge, and accountability. Technical capabilities for assessment are the ability to engage stakeholders, assess the situation and create a vision and mandate, formulate policies and strategies, budget management and implementation, and evaluate. The guide supports practitioners in assessing capacities, identifying desired capacities, and developing a plan to obtain desired capacities.
Economic Development Resources
Community economic development is directly linked to reconciliation and meaningful partnerships. As part of community development, economic development must also be community-led and community driven. Economic development must be inclusive, engaging the whole community in planning activities that reflect their values, ensuring that the community benefits in a holistic and way.
These tools can be used with community development tools to support economic development planning and implementation.
Waubetek Business Development Corporation has resources to support community and economic development officers in drafting business plans, marketing plans, environmental screening, and many other resources.
This Government of Newfoundland and Labrador webpage offers detailed modules to enhance skills related to economic and community development planning, development, and implementation. It contains modules on strategy and planning (strategic planning, proposal writing, project management, opportunity identification, and opportunity management), relationship building (public participation, conflict management, and group dynamics), organizational skills management (organizational governance, board orientation, meeting management, leadership and motivation, interpersonal communications, communications planning, risk management, and financial management), and co-operative development (basics of co-operatives, and co-operatives and the community development process).
This toolkit, developed by the Industry Council for Aboriginal Business, is designed to provide guidance and information on the kinds of business structures that are available to a First Nation community. It also provides information on the roles that community members might have in businesses that are undertaken by a First Nation. Corporate structures vary and members may play different roles depending on the complexity. This toolkit also explores the roles of a Chief and/or Council in economic development and what role the economic development officer holds. The second part of the toolkit could be used for individual members, Chief and Council and/or economic development officers wishing to embark on a business venture.
Agreements between resource companies and Indigenous communities can have a huge impact on communities. The capacity to negotiate and implement such agreements is critical to ensuring that resource extraction generates benefits for communities. An Impact and Benefit Agreement (IBA) is a contract made between a community and a company that provides Aboriginal consent or support for a project to proceed.
This toolkit, produced for the Gordon Foundation, is designed for communities engaged in negotiating IBA agreements with mining companies. The goal of the toolkit is to provide materials, tools, and resources for communities to help them address the process and content issues relevant to negotiating agreements in Canada.